The tree is not only a valuable building material, but also our future. Forest fires, pests and diseases, illegal logging - how to deal with these problems and protect the natural resources of Ukraine?
Most of Ukraine's territories are located in a moderately continental climate zone, which ensures the fertility of local soils. Therefore, there should not be any problems with forestry in our state. But there are a number of questions that are in no hurry to violate Ukrainian politics, and Ukrainian citizens generally ignore it. It is about unauthorized deforestation, littering of forest areas and irregular regeneration of forest funds.
Problems of forestry in Ukraine
Our company, which has been involved in the construction of wooden structures for more than 15 years, can not stay away from this problem. Therefore, we want to analyze the problems that are present in Ukraine and demonstrate ways of solving them according to the model of the leading European states.
Problem № 1. Artificial forest in the eastern part of Ukraine
In Ukrainian forestry all green plantations are divided into two categories - natural and artificial. The largest massif of natural forests is concentrated in the Carpathians and in Polissya, but from the eastern regions of Ukraine artificially planted, and then monitored by them.
Problem № 2. Illegal felling of trees
According to the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine, the largest number of poaching felling has been recorded in the Lviv region. During 2010 there were destroyed more than 8 thousand cubic meters of wood.
These indicators are not lagging behind the whole of Ukraine. Experts note that this indicator is increasing during the winter holidays as people arbitrarily cut down trees for sale and adornment of homes before the New Year.
Problem № 3. Forest fires
This problem is most acute in the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, where the recreational load on forests increases annually, contributing to a constant increase in the level of fire hazard.
Problem № 4. Pests and diseases
The forest, like any living creature, requires constant care. The Carpathian and Polesie forests perform ecological functions not only in the territory in which they grow. These forests are the basis for ensuring employment in the forestry, logging and woodworking industries. The catastrophic scale of firing of fir trees has come to the fore in Europe since 2003. At present, the volumes of drying both the derivatives and the rootstock of the Ukrainian Carpathians have become spontaneous and continue to increase.
In addition, the constant increase in man-made and man-made loads, adverse climatic conditions also require improvement of the general sanitary state of forests.
Solving the problems of forestry
In the first place, it is worthwhile to take an active fight against illegal deforestation. Two factors contribute to this - forest management and certification of forests and the introduction of electronic accounting of wood.
Forest management and certification of forests. This procedure involves the development of forestry organization and development projects, ecologically sound forest management, calculation of the non-exhaustive use of forest resources, determination of volumes of work on forest reproduction, protection of forests from fires, protection against pests and diseases.
Electronic logging of wood. Entering special chips allows you to track the fate of each tree (its cropping time, route of transportation, etc.). For this procedure, special black bars are used, each containing a special bar code that is securely protected against tampering and illegal copying. All data is entered into a single electronic database. This allows you to record all the necessary information: the name of the breed, its age, the volume of the spelled tree, as well as the identity of the person or company that made the digging. The only problem now is the lack of approval at the state level, therefore, it is not possible to require compulsory chipping of each tree at this time.
The second important stage in the restoration of forests is the provision of high-quality climatic conditions and the monitoring of forest fires.
Carrying out works on improvement of qualitative composition of Ukrainian forests. These include works that are to be carried out regularly by forest holdings: clearing of liquid trees, clearing the territory, providing adequate natural light and moisture. Also here belongs to the creation of nature reserves, which provide for the protection of rare species of trees. On the territory of such reserves, deforestation is strictly controlled.
Protection of forests from pests and diseases. The annual sanitation campaign allows you to preserve Ukrainian forests. On the place of cut trees, new, young trees are planted in accordance with the conditions of growth. Also, this paragraph provides for the prohibition of felling of forests during the period of massive reproduction of wild animals (from April 1 to June 15).
Forest is a living organism that is born, lives and dies. And if you do not make timely preventive cutting of trees, then it leads to damage to the wood, called "dry". This increases the risk of fire and clogging of trees with fallen trees. By the way, in Sweden, where forest can be purchased and filed the right of private property, the state provides clear and strictly regulated rules for landing and deforestation for 30-50 years. This practice should be introduced in Ukraine as well.
Reducing the level of fire danger. At this stage, forestry holds fire gaps and mineralized bands.
Thus, among the most effective measures against massive destruction of forests at the state level is monitoring of illegal deforestation, strengthening of tax and customs control, application of administrative and criminal liability. Local forestry also has the opportunity to fight the destruction of the forest by organizing special permanent raiding brigades, which must record violations of forest and hunting legislation.